Instruction to Authors

 All submitted articles must follow the journal style stipulated in this guideline. Types of manuscript submission shall be of any the following:

  1. Original research articles. Articles must be an Original research by the authors, not previously or simultaneously submitted/published in other journals except in preliminary form. The article should state clearly when and where the research was conducted. Each article should not be more than 30 pages, including tables, figures and references (7000 words or less). Articles must contribute significantly to the advancement of knowledge or toward better understanding of scientific concepts in natural sciences, social sciences, education, humanities, governance, technology and mathematics.
  2. Research notes. A two (2) to four (4) page article highlighting the result of a research that needs to be published immediately because of important and novel findings can be published as research note. Articles in research note formats have a maximum of three (3) tables and/or figures and 10 references (e.g. new disease or species, potential technology, introduction or propagation of a crop or animal breed, routinary test such as feed or fertilizer application, variety, hybrids or cropping schemes).
  3. Perspectives. A ten to twelve page article (3000 words or less) with 4 tables/figures that discusses significant issues and provides essential directions or methods in various fields covered in this journal can be published as a perspective. These can be research articles that provide insights, new methods or directions in the field.
  4. Review Article. It is forty page essay/article that discusses, critiques at length on ideas, concepts and insight in the field can be published as a review paper. It summarized the status of knowledge and outline future directions of research within the scope of the journal. These reviews provides critical ideas, new insights, approaches, directions and integrates concepts in a field provided that its references therein includes at least 40 ISI journal articles. Review articles do not cover original research but rather accumulate the results of many different articles on a particular topic into a coherent narrative about the state of the art in the emerging field covered within the scope of the journal references to the original research.

Manuscript Presentation

Manuscripts submitted must be in English (American). Authors whose native language is not English should have their manuscript reviewed by Language Editors before submitting the manuscript. It is not the Editors’ or Referees’ responsibility to provide language editors’ assistance. Manuscripts could be rejected if poorly written. All commonly used word processing programs are acceptable, but the journal prefers document produced in Microsoft word.

  1. The page size should be A4 (210 mm x 297 mm) in portrait orientation with margins of 25 mm on all four sides. The preferred font is Calibri and preferred font size is 12. Text must be double-spaced throughout including tables and legends. All manuscripts should have line numbers to facilitate the refereeing process. All paragraphs should be left aligned and not justified, Do not indent paragraphs. Page numbers should be centered below the text. Metric measurements should be used throughout the manuscript.  Time should be represented via 24 hour designation (e.g. 2300 hours instead of 11PM).
  2. Length of the manuscript should not exceed 30 pages and usually fewer than 7000 words, including references and figures legends. Manuscripts must be printed double-spaced throughout. Pages and lines must be numbered.
  3. Do not use ampersands (&); instead used the word “and’’. Some Latin abbreviations are set in roman type because they have been thoroughly incorporated into English (note that no comma follows the abbreviations). These include: e.g./i.e./ca./in situ/vs/per se/.
  4. Figures and tables should be numbered sequentially in the order that they appear in the text. Do not place figures or tables in the main body of the text, but at the end of the manuscript. Place every table and every figure in separate pages. Figures parts should be labelled with capital letters (A, B, C, etc.). References to figure in the main body of the text: (Fig.1), (Fig. 1A, B) or (Figs 1 and 2) or full Figure 9.
  5. Units and numeric values are applicable to both text and figure legends and axes.
  6. Use International System Units (Km, m, kg, g, etc.). Use the symbols “t” for metric tons. The symbols h, min and s must be used for hours, minutes and seconds. Use between the quantity and the units (e.g. 2 m, 3 kg, 7 g). Exceptions: degree Celsius °C, latitude or longitude units and % (e.g. 37°C; 41 °N, 1°17’E and 10%). Do not include spaces between arithmetic symbols and numeric values: >, (e.g. >7, 7<, a=b+1). Abbreviations for “Standard deviation” and “Standard error” are “sd” and “se” in the text and SD and SE in the tables Use a dot “.” As a decimal marker. Do not use any symbol to separate thousands (e.g. 5200 or 10300). Salinity is a dimensionless unit, and should not have units such as ‰. It is valid to state once in the paper that salinity was measured in practical salinity units (psu), but thereafter no units should be used.
  7. Tables should be consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals and typed on separate pages. Table headings should be given above each table. Tables should be designed to fit in the format of the printed page. Vertical lines should not be used.
  8. When submitting a manuscript, figures must be placed at the end of the manuscript and each figures must include its legend in the lower part. Once the manuscript has been accepted for publication, figures and their legends must be placed separately at the end of the manuscript. Figures presenting the study area should include a small general map showing a large geographical region. Maps must show the locations cited in the text, the names of seas or oceans and the main isobaths. Please, avoid political maps. Drawing, graphs and photograph should be carefully presented on separate sheets. Figures must be prepared so that, after reduction to fit the size of the journal page (16.9 cm for full page width or 8.1 cm one column width), characters and symbols will still be readable. All figures included in a manuscript should use the same font type. Avoid very thin or very thick lines. Map figures must indicate °N, °S, °E or °W. Figures, graphs and maps should be in black and white and not multi-colored.
  9. Manuscripts submitted should have the complete list of headings and components of research papers as follows: Title, Authors, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methodology, Results, Discussion and References. Additionally, Acknowledgements are include. However, manuscript main sections are INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY (MATERIALS AND METHODS), which include the title, the authors’ name, affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding authors which is the Essential Title Page Information.

All headings should be centered, and in upper case and in bold. Sub-headings should begin in paragraphs and appear italicised and bold, followed by a hyphen.

a. Essential Title Page information


  • The Title should be concised and informative. Hence, should be the fewest possible words that adequately describe the content of the paper and it should not be more than 12 words. It can either describe the scope of the paper or state the most important results. Avoid abbreviations and formula where possible. Titles which include species names must also specify the necessary taxa and subtaxa, so that readers not acquainted with the species may at least know the zoological/botanical group the species belongs to.

Author Names and affiliations

  • This section provides the author/s’ given name/s and family name/s and the authors’ affiliations address (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

Corresponding author

  • The corresponding author clearly indicates who will handle correspondences at all stages of refereeing, publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Present / Permanent Address

  • If an authors has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a ‘Present address’ (or ‘Permanent address’) may be indicate as a footnote to that author’s name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the mail, affiliation address superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

b. Abstract

The abstract is a mini – version of the paper and it should be no longer that 180 words in a single paragraph. A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the rationale and purpose of the research, the methods used, principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, literature citations, illustrations and references to table and graphs should be avoided. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential, they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

c. Keywords

Keywords are additional index words or phrases that reflect information contained in the paper which appear immediately after the abstract. Author/s must identify six (6) keywords of the articles. Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, ‘and’, ‘of’). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

d. Main Sections

The mail sections of the manuscripts should follow the standard format called IMRAD which represent the letters of the words standard format called IMRAD which represent the letters of the words INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY (MATERIALS AND METHODS), RESULT, AND, DISCUSSION. Avoid a single section on Results and Discussion. Avoid numbering sections. The main headings should be in capital letters, subheadings in bold type sentence case.

  1. Introduction. This section summarizes current understanding of the problem being investigated. It should state the objectives of the study and provide an adequate overview (background) and significance, discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) but avoiding a detailed related literature or a summary of the results. It should also be brief, clear, and direct to the point and introduction should not be more than 500 words.
  2. Methodology (Material and Methods). This section allows another researcher to judge or actual repeat the methodology. Hence, should be replicable and should provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced. This section should be presented in chronological order but unnecessary details should be avoided. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
  3. Results. This section presents the results but excludes any discussion. This should show the data and findings of the study and should be presented I tables, graphs and text. Results should be written in natural order in subsections similar to methods. Avoid repeating data in both tables and figures, or in tables and text. Results should not include any methods, data for which methods are not included, interpretation of data and references.
  4. Discussion. This section tells about what the results mean, why these are important and how they fit in with existing knowledge. This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not to repeat them. Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided. This covers debatable aspects of the study, hence, there should be no hesitation to include unexpected or negative results. The final paragraph should tell the author’s conclusion (what you take-home message is). Hence, the main conclusion/s of the study form a subsection of the discussion section.


This section provides the list of individuals who provided help during the research and writing of the article. (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). Acknowledgements shall be placed in a separate section at the end of the article before the references. It should not be included in the title page, as a footnote to the title, or otherwise.

Citations in Text.

References in the text are to be cited by the author’s surname, a comma, and year of publication. When several references are cited between brackets, they must follow a chronological order. References within texts, when more than one should be separated by a semi-colon. Noted the style of punctuation in the following examples:

…poses systematic problems (Hulley 1981; Smith and Millar 1995; Carter et al. 2001). … In coastal upwelled waters (Oliveri 1983a, b; Salat 2000, 2002; Horstman SFRI unpublished data).

References List.

A maximum rate of one (1) page of citations for every four (4) pages of text in the manuscript (from Introduction to Discussion) is recommended. Unpublished materials (e.g. thesis and dissertations) should not be used as references, No, more than three (3) references can be cited or support any statement. References must be ordered alphabetically.

Journal name must always be abbreviations. Papers “In preparations” or “submitted” are not acceptable as references. Once accepted, they may be quoted as “in press”, but not before. The format of the references must be followed. All names of authors must be spelled out with their first and middle names shortened to initials followed by period. Agency names must be spelled-out in the references and enclosed in brackets for their abbreviations. The number of pages for books and thesis need to be included in the citation.

The punctuations and style shown in the examples below should be followed:

Christy, F.T. 1996. The death rattle of open access and the advent of property rights regimes in fisheries, Marine Resources Economic 11:287-307

For more than two authors

    • Katikiro R.E., Macusi, E.D., Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M. 2015. Challenges facing local communities in Tanzania in realising locally-managed marine areas. Marine Policy 51:220-229,
    • Russ, G.R., Alcala, A.C., Maypa, A.P, Calumpong, H.P., White A.T. 2004. Marine reserve benefits local fisheries. Ecological Application 14: 597-606.

For Reports

    • Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). 2010. 2009 Philippine Fisheries Profile. DA-BFAR
    • Yearbook of Fishery Statistic. 2004. The Danish Directorate of Fisheries ( Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries.
    • Trudeau, H. 2004. Perspectives on a licensing system for municipal fisheries, p.197-199. In DA-BFAR (Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. In turbulent seas: the status of Philippine marine fisheries. Coastal Resources Management Project, Cebu City, Philippines, 378 p.
    • Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DA-BFAR), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), and the Coastal Resource Management Project (CRMP). 2001. Philippine Coastal Management Guidebook No. 6: Managing Municipal Fishers. Coastal Resource Management Project of the Department of Environment and natural Resource, Cebu City, Philippines, 122 p.

For books

    • Spalding, M.D., Ravilious, C., and Green, E.P. 2001. World atlas of coral reefs. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Miles, M.B. Huberman, A.M. 1994. Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks (California): Sage.

For articles within books

    • Ruiz-Villarreal, M., Bolding, K., Burchard, H., Demirov, E. 2005. Coupling of the GOTM turbulence model to some three-dimensional ocean models, In: Baumert, H.Z., Simpson, J.H., Sundermann, J. (eds). Marine Turbulence: Theories, Observations and Models. Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 225-237.
    • Pichon, A., Correard, S. 2006. Internal tides modelling in the Bay of Biscay. Comparisons with observations. In: Moran, X.A.G., Rodriguez, J.M., Petitgas, P. (eds), Oceanography of the Bay of Biscay. Scientia Marina 70S1: 65-88.4)

It is the author’s responsibility to verify that all citations in the text are listed in the Literature Cited and vice versa.


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processor build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Glossary. Please supply, as a separate list, the definitions of field-specific terms used in your article.


Appendices are any additional document that is relevant to the paper but is of secondary importance and referred to as “supplementary materials” may be required. These are needed for full explanation and understanding of the results but are too bulky and complex to be included in the main text. If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendix, Eq. (B, 1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Determining Possible Authors

An author is generally considered to be an individual who has made substantial and intellectual contributions to a scientific investigation. He/she should have contributed significantly to the conception, design, execution, and/or analysis and interpretation of data, drafting, reviewing, and/or revising the manuscript for intellectual content. The names of the authors are given in the by-line. Only the names of the persons who contributed substantially to the research work should be included as author and co-authors.

Main Authorship 

In publications with multiple authors, one author should be designated as the main author. The main author is not necessarily the principal investigator or project leader. He/she is the one who assumes overall responsibility for the manuscript and provides a significant contribution to the research effort and often serves as the corresponding author. He/she is responsible for authorship and for providing the draft of the manuscript to each contributing author for view and consent for authorship and their approval of the manuscript. The main author is responsible for the integrity of the work as a whole, and ensures that reasonable care and effort has been taken to determine that all the data are complete, accurate, and reasonably interpreted.


The co-authors of a publication should have participated sufficiently in the work to take responsibility for sections of the manuscript content. They shall also review and approve the manuscript. They are responsible for providing consent to authorship to the main author and they acknowledge that they meet the authorship criteria. However, individuals reserves the right to refuse co-authorship criteria. However, individuals reserves the right to refuse co-authorship of a manuscript.

Authorship of Thesis/Dissertation.

The student is considered as the main author of his/her thesis and dissertation. In cases where the adviser took initiative to enhance and publish a thesis, it is still under the main authorship of the student. However, the adviser can be a co-author if he/she took active part in the conceptualization and revision of the paper. It is a different case when the adviser combines data of different manuscripts of his/her advisees and infuses data of his/her own to produce new analysis and findings and in this case, the adviser is the main author and the students as co-authors. This is also applicable for students’ thesis that were components of faculty projects (financially supported by projects) and students thesis/data were combined with other data of the project in one publishable paper. As such, the Faculty/Project Leader who did the writing is the main author and the student/s as co-author/s of the paper.

Retraction Policy 

The DNSC Research journal considers retracting a publication if (1) there is a clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error); (2) The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication). (3) It constitutes plagiarism; and (4) it reports unethical research data.